1. The dispute in this appeal pertains to the inter se seniority
of the appellant visavis 5th respondent, who were appointed as
Assistant Teacher in Secondary School and their services are
governed by the Maharashtra Employees of Private Schools
(Conditions of Service) Rules, 1981 (hereinafter being referred to
as “Rules 1981”).
2. The brief facts that culled out in a nut shell are that the
appellant was appointed as Rest. (untrained) Teacher in High
School, Smt. Sindhutai Poreddiwar, Gogaon, Distt. Gadchiroli,
with effect from 15th July, 1994 vide order of appointment dated
27th June, 1994. Her appointment was purely on temporary
basis for a period from 15th July, 1994 to 7th May, 1995 on the
terms & conditions as laid down in Maharashtra Employees of
Private Schools (Conditions of Service) Regulation Act, 1977 and
the Rules of 1981 framed thereunder. She qualified her B.Ed
examination and became a trained teacher on 19th September,
1997. At the same time, the impleaded 5th respondent was
appointed as trained Assistant Teacher vide order of appointment
dated 13th August, 1997. On the date of appointment, he was
holder of the qualification of B.A., B.Ed. and was a trained
teacher under the Scheme of Rules, 1981. At one point of time,
the appellant was placed senior to the 5th respondent in the
category of Assistant Teacher that gave a cause of grievance to
the 5th respondent. If there is any grievance to the teaching/nonteaching staff in reference to inter se seniority, such dispute has
to be adjudicated by the Education Officer as provided under
Rule 12(3) of the Scheme of Rules, 1981.
3. The Competent Authority adverted to the rival claims of the
parties and observed in its order dated 31st March, 2003 holding
that the 5th respondent was appointed on 13th August, 1997 as a
trained teacher holding the qualification of B.A. B.Ed. and at the
time of entry into service, he was in category table ‘C’. At the
same time, the appellant although was appointed as Assistant
Teacher (untrained) with effect from 15th July, 1994 but she
qualified her B.Ed on 19th September, 1997 and became member
of category table ‘C’ only on acquiring qualification of B.Ed. and
accordingly the 5th Respondent became senior to the appellant in
category ‘C’ to Schedule ‘F’ annexed to Rule 12 of Rules, 1981. It
was upheld by the High Court under the impugned judgment
which is a subject matter before us.
4. Learned counsel for the appellant submits that practically
inter se seniority is not an issue in the present matter although
raised before the High Court but her grievance primarily is
regarding salary escalation which is extended to the graduates as
defined in Rule 2(j) annexed to Schedule ‘B’ to the Rules, 1981.
Learned counsel further submits that the 5th respondent being a
temporary teacher cannot claim seniority until stood confirmed
and seniority could not have been claimed by him over the
appellant before becoming member of the Rules, 1981. Learned
counsel further submits that under the scheme of Rules,
seniority is determined on the basis of longer officiation of service
in the cadre, her later acquiring the qualification of B.Ed and
become a trained Assistant Teacher would not take away her
right of seniority envisaged under Rule 12 of Rules, 1981.
5. Per contra, learned counsel for the respondent, on the other
hand, submits that 5th respondent was initially appointed as a
trained teacher and the appellant acquired the B.Ed.
qualification later and became a member of Category ‘C’ of
Schedule ‘F’ annexed to Rule 12 and this fact has been noticed
by the competent authority while determining the inter se
seniority of the appellant visavis the 5th respondent and
confirmed by the High Court on dismissal of the writ petition and
needs no further interference.
6. We heard the learned counsel for the parties and with their
assistance perused the materials on record.
7. Before adverting to the question raised for consideration, it
will be apposite to take a glance of the scheme of Rules, 1981.
8. The Rules of 1981 has been framed in exercise of the
powers conferred by subsections (1) and (2) of Section 16 of the
Maharashtra Employees of Private Schools (Conditions of Service)
Regulation Act, 1977. Rule 2(j) defines “trained graduate” and
2(k) defines “trained teacher” and qualification of the teachers
has been prescribed under Rule 6 read with Schedule ‘B’ and the
appointment of teaching staff is made in terms of the procedure
prescribed under Rule 9 and their seniority is being determined
in terms of Rule 12 read with the guidelines laid down in
schedule ‘F’ annexed to the scheme of Rules, 1981. The dispute
in reference to inter se seniority is to be resolved by the
Education Officer as referred to under Rule 12(3) of Rules, 1981.
The extract with reference to rules alongwith Schedule ‘F’
annexed to Rule 12 of the Rules, 1981 relevant for the purpose is
reproduced as under:
“12. Seniority List. Every Management shall prepare and
maintain seniority list of the teaching staff including Head
Master and Assistant Head Master and nonteaching staff in the
School in accordance with the guidelines laid down in Schedule
“F”. The seniority list so prepared shall be circulated amongst
the members of the staff concerned and their signatures for
having received a copy of the list shall be obtained. Any
subsequent change made in the seniority list from time to time
shall also be brought to the notice of the members of the staff
concerned and their signatures for having noted the change
shall be obtained.
(2) Objections, if any, to the seniority list or to the changes
therein shall be duly taken into consideration by the
(3) Disputes, if any, in the matter of inter se seniority shall be
referred to the Education Officer for his decision.
1. Guidelines for fixation of seniority of teachers in the
primary schools. The seniority of primary school teachers in
Primary Schools shall be based on the date of joining service and
2. Guidelines for fixation of seniority of teachers in the
secondary schools Junior Colleges of Education and Junior
College classes attached to secondary schools and Senior
Colleges. For the purpose of fixation of seniority of teachers in
the secondary schools. Junior Colleges of Education and Junior
College classes attached to Secondary Schools the teachers
should be categorised as follows :
Category A : Heads of Secondary schools having an enrolment
of students above 500 and Principals of Junior Colleges of
Education having more than four Divisions on the basis of the
dates of their appointments to the respective posts.
Category B : Heads of secondary schools having an enrolment of
students of 500 and below, Principals of Junior Colleges of
Education having four or less Divisions and Assistant Heads of
Secondary schools having more than 20 classes on the basis of
the dates of their appointments to the respective posts.
Category C : Holders of
M. A. /M. Sc./M. Com., B.T./B. Ed., or its equivalent; or
B. A./B. Sc./B. Com., B. T./B. Ed., or its equivalent; or
B. A./B. Sc./B. Com. Dip. T. (old two years course); or
[B. A./B. Sc./B. Com., S. T. C. /Dip. Ed./Dip. T. (one year
course) with 10 years postS. T. C. etc. service.
[B. A. or its equivalent plus Senior Hindi Shikshak Sanad with
five years service; or Junior Hindi Shikshak with ten years
service [after obtaining both academic and training
Category D : Holders ofB. A., B. Sc./B.Com./S. T. C./Dip. Ed. (one year course) [Senior
or Junior Hindi Shikshak Sanad] or its equivalent.
[Explanation. On and after the date of publication of this
notification in the Official Gazette and without affecting the
promotion made until that date, the inter se seniority of teachers
with qualification Senior Hindi Shikshak Sanad or Junior Hindi
Shikshak Sanad in service should be fixed in Category ‘C’ with
reference to the date of their acquiring both the qualifications i.e.
B.A. or its equivalent and the Senior (5 years) or Junior Hindi
Shikshak Sanad (10 years) as the case may be by the teachers
Category E : Holders of
S. S. C., S. T. C./Dip. Ed./Dip. T. (one year course) [Senior or
Junior Hindi Shikshak Sanad] or its equivalent.
Category F : Untrained Graduates or holders of equivalent
Category G : Untrained Matriculates or holders of equivalent
Category H : All teachers other than those mentioned in
categories A to G.
Note 1 : For the purpose of categories C, D, and E teachers with
S. T. C., T. D., Jr. P. T. C. Dip, T., Dip. Ed. (post S.S.C. one year
course) qualifications appointed on or after 1st October 1970
shall be considered as untrained and their seniority shall be
fixed in the ‘F’ or ‘G’ category of untrained teachers as the case
Note 2 : The following training qualifications which can be
secured two years after S.S.C. Examination shall be considered
as training qualification for the purpose of seniority even after
1st October 1970
(1) D. Ed. (2 years).
(2) T. D. (Bombay University).
(3) Dip. Ed. (Nagpur University).
Note 3 : In the case of teachers whose date of continuous
appointment in one and the same category is common, the
teacher who is senior by age will be treated as senior.
Note 4 : The categories mentioned above represent the ladder of
seniority and have been mentioned in descending order.
Note 5 : Where a management runs more than one school and
where Junior College classes are or are not attached to any one
or more of such schools, the seniority list for a particular cadre
shall be a combined seniority list of all persons in that cadre
working in all the schools (excluding night schools, if any), or
Junior College classes attached to schools of the Management.
The total continuous service rendered by the persons in a
particular cadre in any school or Junior College class shall be
taken into consideration for the purpose of seniority and for the
purpose of promotion.
Note 6 : The seniority of the (coaching staff in night school shall
be maintained separately.
Note 7 : Where one of schools is a Girls’ school and where the
Management desires to maintain a separate seniority list of
teachers in that school, the management shall resolve
accordingly and forward a copy of the resolution to the
Education Officer or, as the case may be, the Deputy Director of
Education. Such a decision shall not, however, be revocable at
any time in future. Further, where the Management decides to
do so the candidates to be appointed to the teaching posts shall
be given a clear understanding to the effect that they shall not
have any claim on the promotional posts in other schools run by
the same Management. The services of the members of the
teaching staff in such a school shall not be permanently
transferable to any other school and vice versa. The temporary
transfer of services of the members of the teaching staff in such
a school shall also be with the prior permission of the Education
Officer or, as the case may be, the Deputy Director of Education.
Note 8 : Where a Management runs one or more secondary
schools and a Junior College of Education, then notwithstanding
the fact that trained graduate teachers in Junior College of
Education are in a higher scale of pay, a combined seniority list
of all teachers, in both the types of Institutions shall be
maintained in such schools and Junior College of Education in
accordance with the guidelines laid down in paragraph 2 of this
schedule. This seniority list shall form the basis for purpose of
promotion to the posts of Head Masters and Assistant Head
Masters in secondary school (s) and Principal (s) of Junior
College of Education.
Note 9 : In the case of permanent teachers having a break or
breaks in service (physical or otherwise i.e. owing to parttime
service interposed) between two spans of fulltime service under
the same management, after being made permanent but prior to
the 1st July 1970 and who may not have changed the cadre
after the period of break, the Management shall condone the
break (s) for period(s) not exceeding three years for the purpose
of seniority by commuting retrospectively the period of absence.
If the period exceeds three years and if the teachers had worked
on parttime basis, the Management shall also give credit for
Period (s) of part time service to the extent of half the total
period, for the purpose of seniority only. Each type of such
breaks shall not exceed three in number during the career of a
teacher and seniority so gained shall not entitle the teacher for
Note 10 : The seniority of secondary school teachers in Vidarbha
Region who were permanent on the 31st December 1965 and
whose seniority was determined as per the provisions contained
in the Madhya Pradesh Secondary Education Act, 1951 and the
rules made thereunder shall not be disturbed. If any teacher
among such teachers, improves his qualifications and thereby
switches over to higher category, these guidelines of seniority
shall apply so far as the determination of his seniority in the
higher category is concerned.”
9. The Scheme of the Rules, 1981 of which reference has been
made clearly envisages that the teaching staff holding
qualification mentioned in Subsection (i) to (iv) of Clause 1 of
Item II in Schedule ‘B’ are considered trained teachers and the
seniority of teachers in primary Schools and teachers in the
Secondary Schools, Junior College of Education and Junior
College attached to Secondary Schools are being determined in
terms of the guidelines laid down for fixation of seniority of
teachers in Schedule ‘F’ annexed to Rule 12 of Rules, 1981. As
regards fixation of seniority in the primary school is concerned, it
is based on the date of joining service and continuance
officiation. At the same time, fixation of seniority in the
secondary schools, junior colleges of education and junior college
classes attached to secondary schools and senior colleges, it has
been graded into separate categories commencing from AH, and
as regards category ‘A and B’ are concerned, the seniority is
determined on the basis of the date of appointment to the
respective posts and those who are holders of various
qualifications falling in categories C to H, their seniority is
determined on the basis of total service rendered by the person in
a particular cadre in school or junior college of education for the
purpose of seniority and for promotion as indicated under Note 5,
the rule making authority was conscious of this fact giving
preference in descending order to the holders of category ‘C, D, E
or F’, as the case may be, as indicated in Note 4. As a
consequence thereof, a person who is a member of category ‘F’ or
‘G’, as the case may be, would in no manner can rank senior to
the teaching staff who is member of category ‘C’, ‘D’ or ‘E’ based
on their continuous service rendered in the category to which the
10. Indisputedly, the 5th respondent was holding the
qualification of B.A. B.Ed. at the time of his initial appointment
dated 13th August, 1997 and became a member of category ‘C’.
At the same time, the appellant though appointed on 27th June,
1994 as an untrained teacher, having acquired the training
qualification i.e. B.Ed. on 19th September, 1997 and
became a member of category ‘C’ after entry of the 5th respondent
into service as a trained teacher, could not have claimed seniority
in category ‘C’ over the 5th respondent prior to acquiring
professional qualification(B.Ed) as envisaged under the Scheme
of Rules, 1981 as trained teacher and this what was considered
by the authority who examined the inter se seniority of the
appellant visavis 5th respondent under the Rules, 1981 and
confirmed by the High Court on dismissal of the writ petition
preferred by the appellant.
11. The submission of the appellant regarding salary escalation
to trained graduates against 25% quota was neither raised before
the competent authority nor before the High Court. It may not be
advisable for us to examine at this stage and leave it to authority
competent if raised to examine it independently in accordance
12. Further submission made by the appellant in reference to
nature of appointment as a trained/untrained teacher for the
purpose of the determination of inter se seniority being
insignificant is without substance for the reason that
appointments are made of the teaching staff strictly in terms of
rule 9 of the Rules, 1981 and their seniority is determined under
Rule 12 read with the guidelines annexed to Schedule ‘F’ to the
Rules, which envisages total continuous service rendered by the
person in that particular cadre in any school or college, as the
case may be, which may be a relevant consideration for the
purpose of seniority and for promotion and later confirmation or
becoming permanent in the cadre of teaching staff may not be the
decisive factor for the purposes of determination of seniority of
the teaching staff in the cadre under the scheme of Rules, 1981.
13. Indisputedly, in the instant case, the appellant was entered
into service as an untrained teacher falling in category ‘F’ and the
th respondent was a trained teacher falling in category ‘C’ at the
time of entry into service and the appellant became a trained
teacher on qualifying B.Ed examination after entry of the 5th
respondent into service on 19th September, 1997. The 5th
respondent was a member of category ‘C’ at the very inception of
appointment and the appellant became a member of category ‘C’
later on acquiring the B.Ed. qualification which indisputedly she
acquired after entry of the 5th respondent into service. As such,
she could not have claimed seniority over the 5th respondent in
category ‘C’ of Schedule F annexed to Rule 12 of Rules, 1981, this
what has been held by the High Court under the impugned
14. We, therefore, find no substance in this appeal and the
same is accordingly dismissed.
January 04, 2019.
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